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Pharmacological action - hematopoietic.
Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein that stimulates erythropoiesis, activates mitosis and maturation of erythrocytes from erythrocyte progenitor cells. The molecular weight of erythropoietin is about 32,000–40,000 Da. The protein fraction is about 58% of the molecular weight and includes 165 amino acids. The four hydrocarbon chains are linked to the protein by three N-glycosidic bonds and one O-glycosidic bond. Epoetin alfa, obtained using genetic engineering technology, is a purified glycoprotein, in terms of amino acid and carbohydrate composition it is identical to human erythropoietin excreted from urine in patients with anemia.
Binocrit has the highest degree of purification in accordance with modern technological capabilities. In particular, in the quantitative analysis of the active substance of the Binocrit drug, even trace amounts of cell lines on which the drug is produced are not determined.
Erythropoietin is a growth factor that mainly stimulates the production of red blood cells. Receptors for erythropoietin can be present on the surface of various tumor cells.
The introduction of epoetin alfa is accompanied by an increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, improves blood supply to tissues and heart function. The most significant effect of epoetin alfa was observed in anemia caused by chronic renal failure (CRF), as well as in patients with a number of malignant neoplasms and systemic diseases.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that controls the rate of erythropoiesis in the human body. The presented substance is synthesized mainly in the kidneys, a small amount (about 10 percent) is formed in the liver. The hormone erythropoietin activates the division and differentiation of erythroid precursors. The level of endogenous hormone in the blood plasma of healthy people varies over a wide range and is inversely related to the concentration of hemoglobin and the degree of tissue oxygenation. The work of isolating and producing this hormone for medical purposes is very rewarding.
The structure and significance of the hormone
The hormone molecule is composed of amino acids. With a deficiency of endogenous erythropoietin, a sharp decrease in the level of hemoglobin and erythrocytes in the blood is observed, the so-called erythropoietic deficiency anemia develops. Until recently, medical correction of such anemia remained impossible due to the lack of an appropriate pharmaceutical agent. Nowadays, with a deficiency of the above hormone in the human body, doctors prescribe recombinant erythropoietin. The drug is obtained from animal cells into which the human EPO gene code is introduced. Recombinant human erythropoietin in amino acid and carbohydrate composition is identical to the natural hormone, increases the number of red blood cells, reticulocytes, activates the biosynthesis of hemoglobin in cells. The biological activity of the resulting substance is no different from the endogenous hormone. Recombinant erythropoietin does not show cytotoxic effects and does not affect leukopoiesis. Scientists suggest that EPO interacts with specific erythropoietin receptors that are localized on the cell surface.
Recombinant erythropoietins and their analogs to stimulate the processes of erythropoiesis, doctors use different drugs:
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